Sleep & ADHD

By Mario Esposito
Last Updated: May 15, 2019

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 5% of children in the US have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The National Institute of Mental Health adds that 4.1% of the adult population suffer from it, too.

In children, it’s more common in boys—that is, girls are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. However, in adults the prevalence is about equal between men and women.

What Causes ADHD?

There is no universal cause of this condition, but some risk factors include: being exposed to toxic substances while in the womb, brain abnormalities from birth, or brain injuries due to disease and/or trauma. A predisposition to developing it may also be hereditary.

Some even believe that social and/or disciplinary factors early in life can increase the risk of developing ADHD. A few things to watch out for: a lack of rules and/or authority figures, a broken or chaotic family, too much TV or online time, and a lack of adequate attention from and quality time with parents and/or guardians.

Usually discovered in childhood, there are nevertheless cases of late diagnosis. ADHD is linked to many emotional, medical and social problems: alcohol and drug abuse, poor performance and focus at school or work, sleep difficulties, and more.

What Is ADHD?

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which means that it is characterized by an impairment of the development and growth of the brain and its functions. In particular, ADHD is defined by hyperactivity, impulsiveness, inattentiveness, and a lack of self-control or ability to focus.

Internal workings that manage emotion, learning, memory and self-control are affected by ADHD. It may affect other parts of the central nervous system, too.

It is one of the most common mental conditions that affect children and teens. Although the most obvious symptoms may subside with age, rarely does it simply go away once adulthood sets in. Rather, symptoms and coping mechanisms change depending on the age of the person diagnosed.

ADHD in Children

Because children do not have have years upon years of practice when it comes to social norms and interactions, their ADHD-related behaviors are typically more pronounced. Some adults may think of these moments as just children “acting out”. In fact, the discovery of ADHD in most children is due to following up on noticeable difficulties responding to discipline in both home and school life.

Children with ADHD have low impulse and emotional control, and have trouble sitting still or focusing on one task. This cocktail of abnormal behaviors typically leads to underdeveloped social skills and possible ostracism by peers. These children may also form a dependence on special attention and treatment from parents, teachers and mental health professionals.

Some studies suggest that some cases of early onset ADHD may be sleep health problems misdiagnosed. Said sleep difficulties/disorders range from obstructed breathing to something as simple as as an insufficient amount sleep each night. There are even some theorizing that ADHD itself may be a sleep order.

The confusion is not hard to understand. Many sleep problems in children have symptoms that are similar to those that characterize ADHD, including hyperactivity and inattentiveness.

Children behave differently when they’re sleepy, as opposed to the usual markers we look for in adults. Grownups will appear tired and sluggish. Sleepy children usually overcompensate and go the other direction; displaying extreme moodiness, aggression and physical activity when they feel sleepiness closing in on them.

ADHD in Adults

Because ADHD manifests differently in adults, it’s sometimes said that children simply “grow out” of the mental disorder. This is a dangerous way of thinking, especially without an official diagnosis or a mental health professional overseeing treatment and/or management of the disorder.

ADHD does not just go away naturally with age, but it can seem that way because ADHD is often studied in children. There is a noticeable dip in academic attention otherwise, though studies about adults with ADHD do exist.

Adults with ADHD will usually have a better grasp of social skills and acceptable behaviors, but they will still have trouble focusing. ADHD in adults is marked by difficulties when it comes to organization and time management, which can lead to trouble setting and achieving goals, as well as maintaining a job or important relationships.

Self-esteem issues and tendency to develop addictions are also symptoms. Physical and mental restlessness that could further develop into frustration, anxiety or anger management issues are also things to consider.

ADHD in adults is also commonly accompanied by sleep problems, although again the possibility of misdiagnosis is present. Symptom overlaps can confuse even the best mental health professionals. ADHD and sleep problems like hypersomnia and narcolepsy share more than a few recognizable markers.

How Does ADHD Affect Sleep?

The relationship between ADHD and sleep has never really been completely understood. Even experts cannot unanimously agree if ADHD leads to more sleep disturbances or if sleep disturbances contribute to the development of ADHD.

Since we’re not experts, we’ll pass on taking a stand. Instead, we’ll just focus on the sleep problems that do crop up. There have been many studies looking into the link between sleep and ADHD, especially in children.

Certain sleep difficulties may arise from treating ADHD, which is why natural alternatives to ADHD medication are preferable for some. There are also sleep problems that may simply co-exist with the presence of the mental disorder. All of them can be boiled down to one general difficulty: Wide awake when it’s time to sleep, but sleepy during waking hours. We discuss some common manifestations below.

1. Trouble Falling Asleep at “Normal” Bedtime Hours

In children, this problem presents itself as something called bedtime resistance. Parents will be familiar with the typical whining and complaining of a child that doesn’t want to go to bed yet. With ADHD, this struggle intensifies and likely occurs more frequently. It can take over an hour to get children with ADHD to settle down and finally get some rest.

Adults get to decide when they sleep, and most suffering from ADHD just don’t—not until they are completely exhausted and drained, that is. Those that try to sleep earlier are confronted by a mind that is fully awake, even though they may have felt tired all day. At night, adults with ADHD can feel more stable and more calm. They may also find that they are full of energy, more productive, and more able to think clearly.

How does this come about? It’s not uncommon for adults with ADHD to think of themselves as night owls, because most tend to be functioning at their best capacity after the sun goes down. This is the prime environment for people with ADHD: all is quiet, lights are low, no one else is up, and distractions are nowhere to be found.

However, unless they have built a regular schedule around these long night hours of activity, night owls just make things worse for themselves the next day. Running on an inadequate amount of sleep, daytime tasks are more difficult to perform and commitments are harder to keep—even for a person without ADHD.

2. Tossing and Turning All Night

When people with ADHD finally do drift off, a number of conditions can make it physically impossible for them to sleep soundly, most notably: periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Because of one or more of these, ADHD-afflicted people can routinely get poor quality sleep. They may wake up as tired and exhausted as they were when they fell asleep.

Children with ADHD tend to have more severe symptoms the less sleep they get. It just makes more sense! Even adults without ADHD understand the lack of focus and alertness that comes with poor sleep quality. In some cases, treating the sleep problems observed—instead of the ADHD—may result in the dramatic decrease of issues inattentiveness and hyperactivity, if not outright elimination of symptoms.

In adults with ADHD, addressing the problem of poor sleep quality becomes more complicated. Adults are free to eat whatever they want; and can consume and abuse stimulants like alcohol, caffeine, drugs, and nicotine. What you consume affects how you sleep, and this makes it hard to separate the effects of outside factors from ADHD markers.

To make matters more difficult, common co-existing disorders such as anxiety and depression also lead to sleep disorders. This can make prescribing the proper medication and treatment almost feel like a trial and error process.

3. Difficulty Getting out of Bed in the Morning

This doesn’t really need an extensive explanation. Poor sleep makes for a poor awakenings. When people sleep later than they should and don’t adjust their waking time, they will find it difficult to get out of bed. This likely accounts for the feeling of tiredness and daytime sleepiness most people with ADHD feel throughout the day.

Repeat this enough times and a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) may develop, usually in the form of delayed sleep-phase disorder. Simply put, this is characterized by sleeping and waking later than a person should—based on one’s work, school and social schedule.

4. Sudden and Intrusive Sleeping

In mild cases, this may manifest as daytime sleepiness: inappropriate yawning, an inordinate amount of naps, and an overall sluggishness. Bouts of microsleep can be a problem, too.

Intrusive sleep in severe cases can be akin to what most people think of as narcolepsy. In fact, it’s a common misdiagnosis. This is partly due to the fact that there are not very many studies about this, as the conditions needed to induce intrusive sleeping in people with ADHD are hard to replicate in a controlled environment.

Basically, here is what happens: When someone with ADHD gets very bored and loses interest, sometimes the mind disengages from the present task so abruptly that the body can shut down and “instantly” fall asleep.

How Do You Deal with ADHD-Related Sleep Troubles?

No matter what the sleep problem is, the first answer to this question will always be to improve your sleep habits and make positive adjustments to your sleep hygiene.

Below, we’ve highlighted some aspects of sleep hygiene that we believe are especially important for people with ADHD-related sleep disorders and difficulties.

1. Minimize Possible Sleep Distractions in the Bedroom

This is a no-brainer. If the problem is a lack of focus, then it follows that distractions should be removed or kept to a minimum. Keep entertainment electronics out of the bedroom and make an effort to maintain the space as a sleep sanctuary. No TVs and no gaming consoles.

Staying away from electronic devices like smartphones and tablets in the hours leading up to bedtime will help, too. If you can’t, at least take some steps to control your gadget use during nights.

Investing in blackout curtains and other little additions like rugs, night lights, and/or white noise machines may also be a good idea. It is important to noise-proof your bedroom and manage lighting near your sleeping area to lessen possible sleep interruptions during the night.

2. Keep a Regular Bedtime Routine

Routine and structure are important with people with ADHD, especially children. A regular bedtime and waking schedule is important and is imperative to overall sleep health. The latter goes for everyone, not just ADHD-afflicted people.

A bedtime regimen that’s designed to help you or your child wind down is not only relaxing, but also a good way to train the body to expect sleep at a certain time. This cuts down on bedtime resistance and helps the mind prepare for sleep way before you even step into the bedroom.

Possible elements of this routine can include a taking a long bath, reading, listening to music, and talking about or writing down the day’s events in a diary.

3. Exercise During the Day

Physical activity may aid in dissipating restless feelings and hyperactive tendencies. It gives people with ADHD something to do with energy that would otherwise be spent on potentially unwanted behavior. It may also make you both more productive and more tired, reducing that wide awake feeling that sets in during nighttime.

If it’s in the form of lessons in something that you are very interested in—like dancing or self defense, for example—it can even help you practice alertness, discipline and focus. However, if more strenuous exercise is involved—aerobics, running, and the like—it may be best to schedule it sometime during the day. Light stretches and yoga can be included in your bedtime routine.

4. Regulate Intake of Food and Drinks

This is another point that needs no extensive explanation. As mentioned above, stimulants like caffeine and sugar keep you up—so avoid them as much as possible after dark. Alcohol may help you fall asleep, but sleep disruptions will keep you from achieving a truly restful slumber.

A calming, sleep-inducing tea/infusion can be helpful, but not in large amounts. You don’t want to wake up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom. If hunger pains are a common feature of your sleep disturbances, you may need to adjust the time you consume your last meal. Again, these intakes can be something to add to your bedtime routine; in the form of a small snack or a cup of tea.

5. Consult a Doctor and Get an Official Diagnosis

There’s only so much aggressive Googling can do. If you’re still struggling to maintain optimal sleep health, it may be time to consult a doctor.

It can be intimidating to go to a sleep clinic or a mental health professional—even if the person that may potentially have ADHD is not you, but your child—but it is always worth it. Do it for peace of mind and to have a clear picture of what’s going on.

Sleep and ADHD: The Bottom Line

So you’re dealing with an officially diagnosed case of ADHD and you’re having trouble sleeping. What now? You may find that you need to undo more bad habits that you thought you did. Or, you may find that you’ve been doing everything right all along. Whatever the case may be, talking to a someone that knows what they’re doing is always better than self-medicating.

To that end, it’s worth mentioning that ADHD is typically treated with prescription drugs. These are often stimulant medications which do not cure the disorder, but merely control it. They may cause or worsen sleep problems, which is why many people opt to go with behavioral therapy and other alternate treatments instead.

It is worth trying to treat the manifested sleep problem first—but of course, do talk to your doctor before settling on a sleeping pill or a supplement—to see if observed ADHD symptoms lessen as sleep improves.